Here q&a is an edited type of my discussion with fatih birol, executive manager of overseas energy department, in the ft commodities international summit on september 28.

The virtual summit analyzed trends within the global power change from fossil fuels; dislocation when you look at the energy market due to the coronavirus pandemic, tension on petrostates and progress by leading economies towards fulfilling their particular obligations toward paris weather change agreement. it took place prior to the ieas launch of its most recent prediction of lasting power trends the other day.

Moderator: david sheppard, energy editor, financial circumstances: the coronavirus pandemic has actually upended international power areas but weve additionally seen a renewed commitment from many countries to finally mounting a significant challenge to climate change.

Is 2020 turning out to be a landmark year for the worldwide energy system and where do you see united states going next?

Dr fatih birol, executive manager, global energy agency: over the past several months just about everyone has recognized just how essential energy is for our personal lives and our economies. without power we could perhaps not run hospitals, we could not need it and operating, we couldnt have trucks taking vegetables to market. so energy is important to us. we comprehended that energy sources are a good thing but what is bad is emissions.

At the iea we go through the ramifications of covid in addition to energy sector day-by-day. our hope is, in mid-september, that global power demand will drop by about 5 per cent [in 2020]- which is seven times larger of a decline weighed against this year's financial crisis.

Oil could be the worst-hit gas. year-on-year we anticipate oil need to decrease by about 8m drums every single day, although exact same pertains to coal and gasoline. renewables are much more resilient toward coronavirus crisis, primarily because of the numerous government-backed guarantees for renewable consumption. and there has been a giant decrease in international [carbon] emissions. this many years decrease around 7 per cent is compensating for increase in global emissions associated with the final 10 years. thats a large decrease.

Issue the following is vital tend to be we planning to see emissions coming down thus, maybe not of government policies or technical innovation, but as a consequence of overall economy in addition to health ramifications of covid? and we likely to see emissions, aided by the jump regarding the economy, increasing?

Again, we are able to consider the financial meltdown of 2009. we saw a decrease of emissions in '09 but, using global financial rebound of 2010, we saw skyrocketing worldwide emissions growth. are we going to see [this design] once more or not?

Here the key question is the polices of governments and companies. even more governing bodies are arriving with commitments a lot of them to-be net-zero [in carbon emissions] in 2050 although some have actually less strong objectives.

We also have [climate change] obligations from many companies, but right here i would like to describe a bit. once i read the magazines, oil businesses that are making obligations this european business, that european organization, that united states organization really, if you look at the numbers, in the event that you place these oil organizations, that are covering90 percent for the pages of magazine coverage about those making net-zero obligations, they have been making less than 10 per cent of global oil production.

You can find a huge amount of oil organizations worldwide which have perhaps not however dedicated themselves to co2 reductions.

David sheppard: are you currently getting more certain that we can hit the target of restricting heat increases to less than 2 levels as set underneath the paris weather agreement, or will the economic region of the crisis slow down the modifications we need to make?

Fatih birol: this a very bleak 12 months, but i am well informed than ever before the clean energy changes. for four factors:

A person is that solar, and also offshore wind, have actually costs that are plummeting extremely highly. solar power today is now the least expensive electric source generation in many parts of the world and offshore wind is originating down extremely highly.

2nd: a number of the clean energy technologies require an upfront significant number of assets. as soon as you appear at several main banking institutions around the world that are establishing ultra-low rates of interest as a significant part of monetary plan, this may well assist those clean energy technologies discover their very first opportunities.

Third: more and more governing bodies and much more energy businesses and giant technology businesses are arriving on board and stepping up their efforts.

Fourth, and finally, is innovation the speed of innovation gets stronger, especially in the areas of hydrogen, and carbon capture and storage space.

So, placing most of these things collectively, i will be positive there was momentum and this might well be a turning year when it comes to energy and weather change and governments will always be sitting in the driving seat.

David sheppard: many of the intends to strike next-zero goals rely on technologies particularly hydrogen or carbon capture and storage space which are not however scalable or financially viable. how confident are you these technologies may start to contend in the great outdoors marketplace?

Fatih birol: so that you can attain the net-zero worldwide target by 2050, 1 / 2 of the emission reductions need certainly to result from technologies that aren't however commercially available. ccs [carbon capture and storage space] is one of all of them, hydrogen the second. but ccs has actually strong momentum today. a great instance is norway. they are placing some emphasis on ccs and it is it going many locations.

Hydrogen is similar i have handled the power problem for three decades. i've never seen any technology which enjoys such universal help of governing bodies. normally, governing bodies have actually various views on atomic, fuel, oil, coal, electric vehicles, but once it comes to hydrogen, many people adore hydrogen and lots of governing bodies tend to be investing in hydrogen methods, one following the other.

When we are serious about arresting environment change and solving the situation, we cannot do so entirely with renewables, as most renewables are used for electrical energy generation. we now have the rest of your energy system that people need certainly to decarbonise iron and steel, petrochemicals areas, concrete, long distance transport and here we are in need of ccs and hydrogen if we were to resolve this problem. we cannot resolve these issues only with renewables in those places.

Many governments and organizations are pushing these technologies, perhaps not primarily because they would like to be part of the answer, however they would also like to-be the industrial frontrunner of clean power technology as time goes by. they likewise have a small business approach to the difficulties in addition to a social one.

David sheppard: when you see countries making strong responsibilities on climate change, does it allow you to genuinely believe that a possible top in oil need has been dragged ahead by this crisis?

Fatih birol: the top in oil need, in short- to medium-term, will not be due to everything we are witnessing with behavioural changes [caused because of the pandemic]. if governments do not simply take powerful measures quickly, particularly in two areas electric vehicles and also the petrochemical industry we do not anticipate oil demand to top.

In the event that global economy recovers rapidly, within framework, when you look at the geopolitical framework, i am able to see that it goes 100m barrels on a daily basis and even beyond [pre-crisis demand amounts] but this might well be hindered by the correct federal government policies in place.

David sheppard: we talked early in the day this current year in regards to the bad impact the violent crash in oil prices would have regarding poorer nations in opec and other oil producers, many of which tend to be practically totally reliant on oil profits to fund their governments and social programs.

Whenever we see the peak in oil need in the next several years, what should those countries be performing to organize for these types of a scenario?

Fatih birol: april might go straight down into the history of the oil industry as black april. we seen unfavorable oil costs in april. this will be perhaps the final chance for an exit the many oil-producing nations countries whose economic climate critically hinge on oil prices. not merely need is going to be suffering from clean energy transitions, but additionally the price may be impacted.

We believe oil rates may bemore moderate for quite a while to come considering financial recovery from covid and all these new technologies we're dealing with.

In the last handful of decades, there's been countless conversation in regards to the variation of the economies of these nations but i believe it offers never ever already been urgent than its these days.

But, unfortuitously, it occurs that this change in the course of the countries comes at the same time when many of these nations do not have the funds to improve financial way.

But it is a necessity. we come across instances today iraq, nigeria, libya, venezuela among others also some countries that have a stronger financial position that are going through very hard times. there is no way out for those nations except to diversify their economies far from oil and gas.

There will be no gas and oil organization and no oil and gas nation which will never be impacted by clean energy changes.

David sheppard: in april you led the iea in encouraging oil production cuts by opec and other countries to prop up the price at a really hard time when it comes to international power industry.

Should large created nations be switching how they consider oil prices rather than constantly presuming lower is better, because of the need certainly to fund the power transition?

Fatih birol: the iea was launched given that anti-opec but we now have altered a lot. we examine most of the fuels, all the technologies and, these days, i will proudly say the iea could be the global leader of clean power changes all over the world.

Before, we were considered the wealthy mans power club. in the last 5 years, we have now asia, asia, indonesia, brazil, south africa that have become area of the iea household.

There are two main big method changes the iea. in past times, the motto was the low the oil costs are, the higher it really is. we do not accept that. i think that oil costs at ten dollars [a barrel], that people have seen, i didnt think it was the best thing for the global economy and for the evolved or establishing nations and, for that reason, a fair cost would be far better.

Oil continues to be many strategic commodity on earth, and a crash for the oil areas could have major ramifications the financial stability around the globe.

The crash of this oil markets [helped no person] and i think today there is certainly more security. but im telling to my saudi buddies, my buddies through the middle east and every-where: you need to diversify your economies you simply can't count on oil for decades ahead... interest in oil will be weaker and weaker in the future, so, consequently, please ready your economies consequently.

In a lot of nations, oil revenues will also be an assurance for social security and governmental security of those countries. therefore, it offers implications beyond the vitality industry.

David sheppard: china has now devoted to reaching net zero emissions by 2060. just how confident will you be that us will observe asia in making a consignment towards striking net-zero, to give the world a genuine chance at reaching the paris targets?

Because it seems apparent that with no globes two biggest economies aboard, these plans will struggle.

Fatih birol: chinas statement of president xi [jinping] ended up being of historical importance. the reason why? because...china happens to be the largest emitter on earth. it emits about 25 % of [global] emissions. its a rather welcome announcement. i wish to observe how this top emissions inside this decade can happen in china which are the plan buttons that chinas government will drive?

There is a critical possibility as soon as possible will they publish another five-year plan in asia that may reveal exactly how really serious the asia government is. i am sure they will make the correct announcements. with regards to the united states, contrary to popular belief, in 2019, and 2020 the largest reductions in emissions in the world originated in the us due to the very strong role of solar, wind, and propane changing coal.

I really hope the federal government consistently push the buttons when it comes to green energy changes... as the us is the second-largest emitter after china these days. if these two countries plus europe along with other significant emitters all bond, i'm upbeat that globe can achieve its international energy and weather cause regularly.

We possess the technology coming through. we need the governmental determination to any or all bond as a grand coalition. there may be differences when considering us nonetheless it [tackling climate modification] is a major problem i am sure we can make this happen as well as the iea is performing its better to deliver this grand coalition of the nations together.